|What is a Near-Death
The term “near-death experience” (NDE) was coined in 1975 in
the book Life After Life by Raymond Moody, MD. Since then,
many researchers have studied the circumstances, contents, and
aftereffects of NDEs. The following material summarizes many
of their findings.
A near-death experience (NDE) is a distinct subjective
experience that people sometimes report after a near-death
episode. In a near-death episode, a person is either clinically
dead, near death, or in a situation where death is likely or
expected. These circumstances include serious illness or injury,
such as from a car accident, military combat, childbirth, or
suicide attempt. People in profound grief, in deep meditation, or
just going about their normal lives have also described
experiences that seem just like NDEs, even though these people
were not near death. Many near-death experiencers (NDErs)
have said the term “near-death” is not correct; they are sure that
they were in death, not just near-death.
Near-death experiencers (NDErs) have reported two types of
experiences. Most NDErs have reported pleasurable NDEs.
These experiences involve mostly feelings of love, joy, peace,
and/or bliss. A small number of NDErs have reported distressing
NDEs. These experiences involve mostly feelings of terror,
horror, anger, isolation, and/or guilt. Both types of NDErs usually
report that the experience was hyper-real—even more real than
IANDS supports and encourages research in the field of Near-
Death studies by:
• Publishing the only scholarly journal in the field: the
Journal of Near-Death Studies
• Producing a comprehensive bibliography of near-death
related articles in print
• Maintaining an archive of near-death experiences for
research and study
• Providing a channel for researchers to publish research
Since Raymond Moody published Life after Life in 1975, there
have been a number of landmark studies, including the one
recently in Lancet.
If you are writing a paper on the Near-Death experience, we have
• Important Studies
Included here are articles about research that is of special interest
in the field of near-death studies.
|History and Founders
The pioneering work of psychiatrists Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, Raymond
Moody, Jr. and George Ritchie brought near-death experiences to public
attention in the 1970's. During the years that followed, research studies by
Kenneth Ring, PhD, Michael Sabom, MD, Bruce Greyson, MD, and others
extended the early findings and stimulated additional interest in the field.
To meet the needs of early researchers and experiencers, IANDS was
founded in 1978 and incorporated in Connecticut in 1981. It was the first
organization in the world devoted to the study of near-death and similar
experiences and their relationship to human consciousness. Today its
varied membership represents every continent but the Antarctic.
A Brief History of IANDS
Below is an idiosyncratic history of IANDS, as told by the recollections of
all its presidents to date. It was published in our newsletter, Vital Signs,
1999 No. 4. John Audette subsequently enlarged and made corrections to
his portion, which are reproduced here.
The Early Founding of IANDS, by John R. Audette, M.S.
The Beginning of the 1980s, by Kenneth Ring, Ph.D.
Reflections on IANDS, by Bruce Greyson, M.D.
The Middle Years: The Struggle for Survival, by John Alexander, Ph.D.
The Road to Recovery, by Elizabeth "Pat" Fenske, Ph.D.
IANDS Before the Millennium, by Nancy Evans Bush
My Year As President, by Bruce Horacek, Ph.D.
IANDS Now and in the Future, by Diane Corcoran, Ph.D.
|IANDS’ mission is to build global
understanding of near-death and near-
death-like experiences through
research, education, and support.
Our goals are:
• To encourage thoughtful exploration of all facets of near-death
and near-death-like experiences;
• To provide reliable information about near-death and near-death-
like experiences to experiencers, caregivers, researchers, educators, and
• To serve as a contact point and community for people with
particular interest in near-death and near-death-like experiences.
IANDS’ purpose is to promote responsible, multi-disciplinary exploration or near-
death and near-death-like experiences, their effects on people’s lives, and their
implications for beliefs about life, death, and human purpose. IANDS does not
subscribe to any particular interpretation of the near-death experience.
IANDS has evolved from an organization serving mainly researchers to a much
more inclusive one. Today IANDS serves six distinct classes of people:
People who are interested in doing research on near-death experiences and/or near-
Health Care Professionals:
People who care for experiencers’ physical and/or mental health.
People who have had a near-death or near-death-like experience.
People close to experiencers
Many of our services for experiencers are also applicable to people who know them
well. We also have specialized materials for those close to experiencers.
People who teach about near-death and near-death-like experiences.
Interested other people:
People with special needs or other interests related to these experiences, including
those with terminal illness, those in grief, and the general public
Life goes on
Article by Tijn Touber
Cardiologist Pim van Lommel did a monumental study of near-death experiences—which raises fascinating questions about life after
death, DNA, the collective unconscious, and everyone’s karma.
When the The Lancet published his study of near-death experiences, Dutch cardiologist Pim van Lommel couldn’t have known it would make him
into one of the world’s most-talked-about scientists. It seems everyone wants to know about the man who managed to get his study of this
controversial topic published in one of the leading journals of medical research. Yet it’s not really surprising that its publication in 2001 created a
stir. Never before had such a systematic study been conducted into the experiences of people who were declared dead and then came back to life. And
never before have we seen such a clear illustration of how these people’s stories could affect our way of thinking about life and death.
Van Lommel, 63, isn’t one to seek name and fame. On this lovely summer day in his garden near the Dutch city of Arnhem, he displays more interest
in what’s going on at Ode magazine than in his own story. That same deep curiosity was at work 35 years ago when Van Lommel, working as a
physician’s assistant in a hospital, listened intently to a patient talk about her near-death experience. He was immediately fascinated. But it wasn’t
until years later, as he read the book Return from Tomorrow in which the American doctor George Ritchie describes his own near-death experience
in detail, that Van Lommel wondered if there were many other people who had undergone similar experiences.
Van Lommel decided from then on to ask all his patients whether they remembered anything that had happened during their cardiac arrests. “The
answer was usually ‘no’ but sometimes ‘why?’ When I heard the latter, I extended the office visit.” Over two years he heard stories from 12 patients
and his scientific curiosity was piqued. Those stories were the beginning of a years-long study.
I was looking down at my own body from up above and saw doctors and nurses fighting for my life. I could hear what they were saying. Then I got a warm feeling
and I was in a tunnel. At the end of that tunnel was a bright, warm, white, vibrating light. It was beautiful. It gave me a feeling of peace and confidence. I floated
towards it. The warm feeling became stronger and stronger. I felt at home, loved, nearly ecstatic. I saw my life flash before me. Suddenly I felt the pain of the accident
once again and shot back into my body. I was furious that the doctors had brought me back.
Just about every description of a near-death experience is this beautiful. People feel connected and supported. They grasp how the universe works. They experience
unconditional love. They feel free of the pressing concerns of earthly existence. Who wouldn’t want such an experience? “It sounds fantastic, doesn’t it?” Van Lommel
laughs. “But it’s not always easy to deal with. When people come back, they often have the feeling they’re being imprisoned. And it can take years before they are
able or have the courage to integrate the insights they’ve gained into their everyday life.”
Still, a majority of people who have had a near-death experience describe it as magnificent and say it enriched their lives. Van Lommel explains, “The most important
thing people are left with is that they are no longer afraid of death. This is because they have experienced that their consciousness lives on, that there is continuity.
Their life and their identity don’t end when the body dies. They simply have the feeling they’re taking off their coat.”
That may sound like it’s coming from someone who’s spent a little too much time hanging around New Age bookstores. But from what Van Lommel has seen, near-
death experiences are not at all limited to members of the “spiritual” community. They are just as prevalent among people who were extremely skeptical about the
I became “detached” from the body and hovered within and around it. It was possible to see the surrounding bedroom and my body even though my eyes were
closed. I was suddenly able to ‘think’ hundreds or thousands of times faster—and with greater clarity—than is humanly normal or possible. At this point I realized and
accepted that I had died. It was time to move on. It was a feeling of total peace—completely without fear or pain, and didn’t involve any emotions at all.
The most remarkable thing, Van Lommel says, is that his patients have such consciousness-expanding experiences while their brains register no activity. But that’s
impossible, according to the current level of medical knowledge. Because most scientists believe that consciousness occurs in the brain, this creates a mystery: How
can people experience consciousness while they are unconscious during a cardiac arrest (a clinical death)?
After all those years of intensive study, Van Lommel still speaks with reverence about the miracle of the near-death experience. “At that moment these people are not
only conscious; their consciousness is even more expansive than ever. They can think extremely clearly, have memories going back to their earliest childhood and
experience an intense connection with everything and everyone around them. And yet the brain shows no activity at all!”
This has raised a number of large questions for Van Lommel:
“What is consciousness and where is it located? What is my identity? Who is doing the observing when I see my body down there on the operating table? What is
life? What is death?”
The body I observed laying in bed was mine, but I knew it wasn’t time to leave. My time on earth wasn’t up yet; there was still a purpose.
In order to convince his colleagues of the validity of these new insights, Van Lommel first had to demonstrate that this expansion of the consciousness occurred, in
fact, during the period of brain death. It was not difficult to prove. Patients were often able to describe precisely what had happened during their cardiac arrest. They
knew, for example, exactly where the nurse put their dentures or what doctors and family members had said. How would someone whose brain wasn’t active know
Nevertheless, some scientists continue to assert that these experiences must happen at a time when there is still some brain function going on. Van Lommel is crystal
clear in his response: “When the heart stops beating, blood flow stops within a second. Then, 6.5 seconds later, EEG activity starts to change due to the shortage of
oxygen. After 15 seconds there is a straight, flat line and the electrical activity in the cerebral cortex has disappeared completely. We cannot measure the brain stem,
but testing on animals has demonstrated that activity has ceased there as well.
Moreover, you can prove that the brain stem is no longer functioning because it regulates our basic reflexes, such as the pupil response and swallowing reflex, which
no longer respond. So you can easily stick a tube down someone’s throat. The respiratory centre also shuts down. If the individual is not reanimated within five to 10
minutes, their brain cells are irreversibly damaged.” He is aware that his findings on consciousness fly in face of orthodox scientific thinking. It is remarkable that an
authoritative science journal like The Lancet was willing to publish his article. But it wasn’t without a struggle. Van Lommel recalls with a smile, “It took months before
I got the green light. And then they suddenly wanted it finished, within a day.”
Van Lommel’s work raises profound questions about what “death” actually means: “Up to now, ‘death’ simply meant the end of consciousness, of identity, of life,” he
notes. But his study topples that concept, along with the prevailing medical myths about who has near-death experiences. “In the past, these experiences were
attributed to physiological, psychological, pharmacological or religious reasons. So to a shortage of oxygen, the release of endorphins, receptor blockages, fear of
death, hallucinations, religious expectations or a combination of all these factors. But our research indicates that none of these factors determine whether or not
someone has a near-death experience.”
This experience is a blessing for me, for now I know for sure that body and soul are separated, and that there is life after death. It has convinced me that
consciousness lives on beyond the grave. Death is not death, but another form of life.
Van Lommel contends that the brain does not produce consciousness or store memories. He points out that American computer science expert Simon Berkovich and
Dutch brain researcher Herms Romijn, working independently of one another, came to the same conclusion: that it is impossible for the brain to store everything you
think and experience in your life. This would require a processing speed of 1024 bits per second. Simply watching an hour of television would already be too much for
our brains. “If you want to store that amount of information—along with the associative thoughts produced—your brain would be pretty much full,” Van Lommel says.
“Anatomically and functionally, it is simply impossible for the brain to have this level of speed.”
So this would mean that the brain is actually a receiver and transmitter of information. “You could compare the brain to a television set that tunes into specific
electromagnetic waves and converts them into image and sound.
“Our waking consciousness, the consciousness we have during our daily activities,” Van Lommel continues, “reduces all the information there is to a single truth that
we experience as ‘reality.’
During near-death experiences, however, people are not limited to their bodies or their waking consciousness, which means they experience many more realities.”
This explains why people who have a near-death experience sometimes have great difficulty functioning in their daily lives afterwards. They retain the sensitivity that
enables them to tune into different channels simultaneously, making a cocktail party or bus ride an overwhelming experience as all the information from people around
them comes in on all channels.
I saw a man who looked at me lovingly, but whom I did not know. At my mother’s deathbed, she confessed to me that I had been borne out of an extramarital
relationship, my father being a Jewish man who had been deported and killed during the Second World War, and my mother showed me his picture. The unknown
man that I had seen years before during my near-death experience turned out to be my biological father.
According to Van Lommel, near-death experiences can only be explained if you assume that consciousness, along with all our experiences and memories, is located
outside the brain. When asked where that consciousness is located, Van Lommel can only speculate. “I suspect there is a dimension where this information is stored—
a kind of collective consciousness we tune into to gain access to our identity and our memories.”
By means of this collective information field, we are not only connected to our own information, but also that of others and even the information from the past and
future. “There are people who see the future during a near-death experience,” Van Lommel says. “For example, there was a man who saw his future family. Years
later, he found himself in a situation he had already seen during his near-death experience. I suspect this is also the way déjà vu works.” According to Van Lommel’s
research, during a near-death experience, people can also make contact with the dead, even if they don’t know them.
But how does the brain “know” what information to tune into? How can someone tune into his own memories and not those of other people? Van Lommel’s answer
is surprisingly short and simple: “DNA. And primarily the so-called ‘junk DNA,’ which accounts for around 95 percent of the total, whose function we don’t
understand.” He suspects that the DNA, unique to every person and every organism, works like a receptor mechanism, a kind of simultaneous translator between the
information fields and the organism.
The idea that DNA works as a receptor mechanism to attune people to their specific consciousness fields sheds new light on the discussion of organ transplantation.
Imagine you get a new heart. The DNA of that heart will gear itself to the consciousness field of the donor, not the recipient. Does this mean you suddenly get different
information? Yes, Van Lommel says: “There are stories of people who developed radically different desires and lifestyles after an organ transplant. For example, there’
s a story of a ballet dancer who suddenly wanted to drive a motorcycle and eat junk food.”
I perceived not only what I had done, but even in what way it had influenced others.
The cliché is true: People see their lives flash before them at the time of death. And people gain insight into the consequences of their actions. They might see
themselves as at 4 years old, taking away their sister’s toys, and feel her pain. Van Lommel comments, “At that moment it’s as if you have the thoughts of someone
else inside you. You are given insight into the impact of your thoughts, words and deeds on yourself and others. So it appears that every thought we have is a form of
energy that continues to exist forever.”
People who have experienced such a “life review” say it’s not so much about what you do as the intention behind it. “It is extremely intense to experience that
everything that goes around comes around.” Van Lommel leans forward to be sure his words come across. “No one avoids the consequences of their thoughts. That’
s very confrontational. Some people discover there’s something they can never put right. Others come back and immediately start calling people to apologize for
something they did 20 years ago.”
So is there a Last Judgment after all? Van Lommel is clear: “Absolutely not. No one is judged. It’s an insight experience. Most people go through this flashback in the
presence of a being made of light. That being is entirely loving, absolutely accepting, without judgment, but has complete insight. The flashback changes people’s
understanding of life. They adopt other values. They feel they are one with nature and the planet. There is no longer any difference between themselves and others. It’s
not about power, appearance, nice cars, clothes, a young body. It’s about completely different things: love for yourself, for nature, for your fellow human beings. The
message is as old as time, but now they’ve experienced it themselves and they have to live by it.”
Then, after a short silence, he says, thoughtfully:
“It’s almost scary to realize that every thought has a consequence. If you let that sink in…every thought we have, positive or negative, has an impact on us, each other
Do you have to nearly die to learn these life lessons? No, says Van Lommel, who has never had a near-death experience himself. Thanks to his research, he learned
so many valuable lessons that he decided to abandon his career in cardiology in 1992 and dedicate himself fully to further research, publishing and lecturing on the
subject of near-death experiences. He founded the Merkawah Foundation in the Hague, the Dutch department for the International Association for Near-Death
Studies, which offers information and guidance to Dutch people who have had near-death experiences.
“Working with it and being open to it have changed my life,” Van Lommel says. “I now see that everything stems from consciousness. I better
understand that you create your own reality based on the consciousness you have and the intention from which you live. I understand that
consciousness is the basis of life, and that life is principally about compassion, empathy and love.”
The italicized segments of this article were taken from interviews Pim van Lommel and his research team conducted with people who have had a near-death
More information on International Association for Near-Death Studies: www.iands.org.
|1997 North American Conference San Antonio, Texas
|The NDE Paradigm:
Living in Alignment with Cosmic Consciousness
( Send responses to: JDBourdon@comcast.net )
No event in this world is more life-altering to an individual than the
near-death experience. For every experiencer, the world is never
again interpreted in the same way because it is no longer seen as the
primary field of existence. The NDE results in undeniable self-
knowledge and self-realization of the true nature of our existence and
the purpose of life.
While experiencers have no doubt whatsoever that they have
encountered the primary field of existence, attempts to prove the
validity and value of NDEs fall short. This remains so even though
tens of millions have had NDEs – people from every region in the
world, at every age, from every religion or no religion, from people
living "good" to "bad" lives.
Intellectual musings about NDEs falter because there literally are no
words to describe the dimension that is encountered, the language
used can be misinterpreted and, in any case, any intellectual case for
the NDE can only be a theory. Meanwhile, scientific experiments that
primarily focus on the physiological processes associated with NDEs
miss its very essence. Even scientific explorations that acknowledge
the NDE essence as non-physical provide no guidance as to how to
use this knowledge.
While NDEs differ in many ways, and those differences should not
be discounted, the overwhelming commonalties are more important,
and form the basis of the NDE Paradigm. The true measure of the
power and cosmic truth of the near-death experience are the resulting
unprecedented and irreversible changes in experiencer belief and
Living the NDE Paradigm provides far more impressive proof of
NDE validity than any intellectual belief or scientific experiment
because the positive changes in one’s life are monumental in nature,
personally undeniable. . . and inevitable. They are inevitable because
once the doors to cosmic consciousness are opened, significant
changes (see RESULTS) begin immediately upon application.
The more the Paradigm is applied, the greater the life transformation.
In short, living the NDE Paradigm replicates the essence of the NDE
experience… without the practitioner suffering physical trauma.
Because living the NDE Paradigm does not necessitate a great deal of
intellectual/scientific knowledge, it is accessible by all mentally
healthy people. Every single moment of life, every thought, is an
opportunity to apply - or not apply - the Paradigm. The wisdom of
choosing to apply the Paradigm becomes self-evident, especially to
non-experiencers, who will see the changes in their lives.
NDEs give experiencers knowledge. . . but not necessarily wisdom. A
person confused by life before a NDE may be even more confused
afterward. Experiencers know they must apply the knowledge they
received to this dimension – an extremely challenging task that
necessitates personal decision-making. Living the NDE Paradigm
does not eliminate that task – or its difficulty - but helps one by
providing a coherent plan for integrating NDEs into this dimension.
The NDE Paradigm is a spiritual compass that provides direction
without dogma – it is a truth, not the truth. It is based on cosmic
consciousness, which underlies all spiritual truths. Practitioners must
always think for themselves and adjust and expand upon the
Paradigm in light of their own life journey. The NDE Paradigm
cannot be lived on remote control, because it demands personal
involvement. There can, and should be, other versions of the
Believing in the Paradigm will accomplish nothing; only the effort to
apply it in its entirety will achieve results.
THE NDE PARADIGM
1. This is not the primary dimension of existence. Any moment you
are not aware of this, you are not living the NDE Paradigm. The
primary field of existence is one of unconditional love and
compassion. "God" is everything, collectively. You co-create the
universe with "god." You are not apart from "god;" you are a part of
2. You are, in essence, a vibration – or wave, or energy – a
manifestation of unconditional love. The wording does not matter, the
word "vibration" is only an approximation, because the vibration you
are is not a neutral energy, but rather one that is love, compassion,
and a knowingness of existence. When you die, what remains eternal
and living will be the real you – a vibration.
3. Your mission on earth is to improve/evolve/self-realize your
vibration. You do not control anything or anyone else; your focus
must be on yourself. You improve your vibration through love –
including self-love – and compassion. "Acting" nice is of no benefit.
4. You are not here to improve or "save" this world. This world was
designed to be as it is, even with the brutality and harshness it offers.
However, by living the Paradigm of love and compassion, you will by
definition improve the world. But you must concentrate on yourself.
5. Intentions, rather than deeds or beliefs, are what matter. Deeds
have consequences in this dimension; in the primary dimension they
matter only insofar as they are the result of intention. When you die,
your true intentions, motivations and thoughts from every moment of
your life will be known to you. These vibrations will be the measure
of your life. Your accomplishments or failures in material terms - or
your station in life, from beginning to end - will mean nothing. The
events in your life are never rewards or punishments.
6. There is no judgement when you die, save for self-judgement. You
will not be punished by some external god. You served god – and
vice versa – by taking this mission, and it is understood in the next
dimension just how difficult – and "unwinnable" – this life is. The
very concept of "sins" is wrong; you have instead made mistakes
from which to learn.
7. Every moment of your life has meaning. You will be challenged –
and every challenge, every difficulty, every setback, should be
viewed as an opportunity to achieve your mission of growth.
8. The NDE Paradigm will not prevent difficult experiences –
indeed, the Paradigm guarantees you will face challenges, some of
which cannot be overcome. Struggle is one avenue to growth.
President of I.A.N.D.S.
|I.A.N.D.S. Research & NDE'r etc...
|9. Joy, pleasure, happiness - all these are also avenues of growth. Blissful moments improve your vibration; they are to be maximized.
An infinite number of sources for joy are always available – but while life challenges are provided, happiness must be sought. Recognize
and celebrate the simplest life pleasures at every opportunity. Identify with and delight in the happiness of others; making these
connections helps all achieve the life mission.
10. You chose to accept this mission in the earthly dimension – knowing of the difficult nature of existence in this dimension. As we are
all connected, you may have even chosen a sacrificial life in order to provide others with opportunities for growth. A child that lives for
but a day has served his/her mission.
11. Love and have compassion for yourself and others. Recognize that we have all taken on this difficult mission.
12. Do not judge others. Your mission is to take the situation you are presented with and to act in accordance with the Paradigm.
Nothing anyone does makes you respond in a certain way, it is your choice alone. The fact that someone is doing something that seems
hurtful to you or others is first and foremost an opportunity for you to improve your vibration through non-judgement. Non-judgement
does not preclude taking action, however. That is a choice you are free to make, and then your mission will be to apply the Paradigm to
the consequences. All experience is knowledge to be converted into wisdom.
13. You must not judge yourself and – as you should do with others – look at every thought and action that falls short of living the
Paradigm as a mistake rather than a sin; more importantly, as an opportunity from which to learn. In the primary dimension, you will not
be punished by any external force for even your worst moments; it serves no purpose to judge/punish yourself in this dimension. You
will, however, feel the full weight of everything you’ve lived – from thoughts to actions – and not just know but EXPERIENCE exactly
how these affected others. You will hold yourself accountable, measuring the success of your mission in life in terms of the love and
compassion you provided to others. Your shortcomings are necessary for growth; it is guaranteed you will fall short at times, perhaps
your entire life. But failing to learn from these mistakes will only assure you will repeat these patterns.
14. Recognize that we are all at different points of our mission. The behavior of someone else at this particular time is part of their
mission; your mission in encountering them at this time is to react in accordance with the Paradigm. Do not expect anything of anyone;
demand only of yourself. You cannot control what happens to you; you can only control your reaction to those events.
15. Look for every opportunity to help others through word or deed – not for a cosmic reward, but out of genuine love and compassion.
Every time you do so, you improve your vibration and thus fulfill your mission.
16. Focus on the journey, not the destination – this life is not all there is. There is no destination to be reached in this lifetime, thus you
cannot fall short of reaching it. When this life ends, the journey continues.
17. Self-insight is crucial to living the NDE Paradigm. If you cannot follow these actions, or are confused or seriously conflicted in the
attempt, your body/mind may be broken, and you should consult with others, including medical personnel.
18. You will see life more clearly than ever before, because you will be in accordance with cosmic consciousness. You will be more
mentally well-balanced than ever before.
19. When you interpret life through the Paradigm, you will re-assess all you have done in your life. Guilt – and fear of punishment – is
20. Every moment of your life has meaning when you live the Paradigm. Every thought matters, and is an opportunity for growth.
Everything makes sense, including setbacks.
21. You will come at every decision in life from the soundest foundation possible. Even if a decision you make does not yield success,
you will not agonize over it because you made the best choices you could.
22. Living the Paradigm will NOT prevent challenges or a difficult life. It will not provide material success. It will not guarantee happiness
– but it will provide the best balm possible in challenging times because you will correctly understand what is actually happening. And in
this, eventually, it will guarantee serenity even in the face of what was previously thought of as unbearable.
23. The love and compassion you provide to others primarily serves you - because in the act of letting love flow through you, you are
also its recipient. But this act will also attract love and compassion.
24. You will reduce or eliminate the re-occurring mistakes of your life. Life-long bad habits, actions or thoughts will give way to radically
different, life-enhancing changes. These changes, over time, will become the automatic, default reactions of your life.
25. You will feel a greater connection with other people – even those you do not speak or directly interact with – because of your
26. You will reduce anger and frustration by not judging others – or humanity or the world at large - and instead recognize they are
on their own unique mission, and that even horrific mistakes are fundamentally necessary for the world to serve its purpose.
|Rare interview with
Dr Elisabeth Kubler Ross